Editor’s Note: David Helvarg recently wrote the following for Voices National Geographic. Researchers can directly link climate changes to the changes in our oceans. Some call ocean acidification “climate change’s evil twin.” We have posted a portion of Helvarg’s piece, with a link to the entire story on the National Geographic website. We have included a recently released video from researchers from the Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, Hopkins Marine Station, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute that aexplain the integral links between climate change and our global oceans.
Coral bleaching is happening now and globally! Bleaching, Acidification, Sea Level Rise, loss of sea ice…Climate is an ocean issue, which is why the Paris Climate Summit beginning Monday has to succeed. With the return of a strong El Niño in the Pacific Ocean and ever warmer seas, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has declared the third global coral bleaching event in history (the first two took place in 1998 during an earlier El Niño and in 2010 the hottest year on record until 2014 and now 2015). Coral bleaching is an indicator sign that the ocean is heating up. Overly warm water causes living coral polyps to expel the photosynthetic algae, called zooxanthellae that give them their varied colors and about 70% of their nutrients. If the bleaching lasts too long, the corals starve to death. After the 1998 bleaching 16% of the world’s corals were dead.
Ninety-five percent of U.S. corals, which are mostly concentrated off the coasts of Hawaii and Florida, are likely to be exposed to conditions that can cause bleaching in 2015 and 2016.
Tropical coral reefs cover less than 1% of the ocean, but they are home and nursery to 25% of all marine species; billions of fish, mollusks and other creatures rely on reefs for their food and shelter. Their wonder and beauty generates needed tourism dollars for many poor nations, and they act as natural barriers providing storm surge protection for many millions of coastal residents.
Unfortunately, they are especially fragile in the face of pollution, ocean acidification, overfishing and climate change. Most are not expected to survive this century. (Click here to read more: http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2015/11/29/coral-bleaching-and-the-paris-summit/ )