Coastal Community Protests Decibel Levels, Intensity of Proposed Seismic Testing


By

Charmaine Coimbra

Citizens along the Central Coast of California have joined forces to halt the proposed seismic testing in the ocean waters that lap up against the Diablo Nuclear Plant, as reported in a recent Neptune 911 post.

The protest against the seismic testing is the level of decibels (250 decibels of sonic blasts for nine to twelve days)  blasted into the ocean floor to measure fault line dimensions and activity.

The San Luis Obispo Tribune reports:  

  The tests are part of a $64 million study that PG&E is conducting to better understand earthquake faults around the nuclear plant.

Extremely loud blasts of sound will be emitted into the ocean every 15 seconds in three areas of the Pacific, from near Cambria to Guadalupe.

Nine to 12 days of testing will be done this year and the remainder performed next year.

Seismologists will be able to use the echoes of the sound blasts from Earth’s crust to develop three-dimensional images of earthquake faults at the depths the quakes occur.

Sonic blasts could have unknown consequences on local sustainable fishing practices and progress.

From another Tribune report :

High-energy ocean seismic surveys scheduled to begin in November offshore of Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant will scatter fish and make them initially harder to catch, but the long-term effect of the loud sonic blasts on fish stocks is less well understood.

The concern by citizen groups, like the recently formed Citizens Opposing Acoustic Seismic Testing (C.O.A.S.T.) take issue with the unknowns  when applying 250 decibel sonic blasts for the proposed length of time and the unknown long term impact to the federally protected coastal region.

The following explanation of sound decibel levels comes  from Ultimate Sound Pressure Level Decibel Table by William Hamby in 2004.  (CAPS from the report. Highlighted marks from Neptune 911 editor and we ended the report at 278 dB for blog brevity.  Refer to the above link for references and additional information.)

The New York Times has reported on a similar issue on the Atlantic Coast: http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/11/will-seismic-blasts-upend-atlantic-marine-life/.   From that report:

Environmentalists and commercial and recreational fishermen are nonetheless concerned about the intensity and frequency of the airgun blasts: they will be fired every few seconds around the clock and can continue for several weeks. The waves “reverberate around the ocean, and they create this massive acoustic footprint”  – loud enough to travel thousands of square miles, said Mr. Huelsenbeck of Oceana.

The intensity and reach of the noise will not only  drive some marine animals away and  disrupt their feeding patterns, Oceana  argues, but could damage or destroy their hearing. This is particularly worrisome for whales, which do not have sharp eyesight and
depend heavily on their hearing. Without it, “they can’t navigate, they can’t function,” Mr. Huelsenbeck said. “They keep contact with others based on their calls.”

Animals like whales decline slowly once their hearing is gone, making it difficult to link a death  directly with the seismic tests, he added.

Oceana also points to seismic testing conducted in 2001 off Sakhalin Island in Russia that was associated with the departure of endangered gray whales from a primary feeding area.

Decibel’s ( db ) are units of ratio’s and in this table are expressed in atmospheric decibels and in this table are REPRESENTATIVE OF THE OBJECT

(N), and not neccesarily what the listener or sound level meter experiences (P). (N) = NORMALIZED TOTAL AIR POWER ENERGY LEVEL SOUND PLUS ANY WIND, WATTS OR JOULES PER SECOND.THESE LEVELS HAVE BEEN CONVERTED

(P) = ACTUAL PEAK PRESSURE METER READINGS i.e. A FORCE PER UNIT AREA (NP) = NORMALIZED PRESSURE USED IN EXPLOSIVE MEASUREMENTS, BLAST WIND IS NOT INCLUDED

(Q) = BLAST WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE CREATED BY THE PEAK SHOCK FRONT OVERPRESSURE

(P) REF. = REFERENCE NUMBER OF DATA SOURCE AND YEAR IN APPENDIX BELOW DECIBEL LEVEL (N = NORMALIZED)( P = ACTUAL PRESSURE) (NP = BOMB PRESSURE) CAUSE OR EFFECT

-80?(P)UNDERWATER NUCLEAR SUBMARINE MICROPHONES LISTENING TO SHRIMP CHEWING ON FOOD AT 100 METERS DISTANCE

-30 (N) ONE HUMAN TALKING 20 MILES AWAY ( 60 DB / METER AT A DISTANCE OF 20 MILES )-REF.1.2003

-4 TO +4 (N) THE TICKING OF AN ORDINARY WRISTWATCH AT 1 METER -REF.1 2003

0 (N) BEGINNING OF HEARING, A MOSQUITO 10 FEET AWAY, THE EAR DRUM MOVES LESS -REF.1.1990 THAN 1 / 100 THE LENGTH OF AN AIR MOLECULE (N)

3.5 (P) 1E-10 METERS OF MERCURY = 0.0000000001 METERS OF MERCURY

10 (P) ABSOLUTE SILENCE, ATT-BELL LABORATORY “ QUIET ROOM “

13 (P) ORDINARY LIGHT BULB HUM 15 (N) A PIN DROP FROM A HIEGHT OF 1 CENTIMETER AT A DISTANCE OF 1 METER -REF.1.2003

30 (P) TOTALLY QUIET NIGHTTIME IN DESERT-IMPOSSIBLE ANYWHERE NEAR CITY

35 (P) ANECHOIC HEARING TEST ROOM -REF.1. 1998

40 A WHISPER, A NORMAL CONVERSATION IS 60 DB, NORMAL SOUND\

70 DB -REF.1.1983 73.98(P) = 1 uBAR = 1 microbar pressure

85 BEGINNING OF HEARING DAMAGE, EARPLUGS SHOULD BE WORN 93.98(P) = 1 PASCAL PRESSURE

100 NORMAL AVERAGE CAR OR HOUSE STEREO AT MAXIMUM VOLUME -REF.1.1982

107-104 (P) THE BEGINNING OF PAIN AT THE MOST SENSITIVE FREQUENCY OF 2750 HERTZ -REF.1.1982

109 ONE SOUND WATT RADIATING AS A PERFECT SPHERE, 4 PI SQUARE METERS -REF.1. 1986

110 A CAR STEREO WITH TWO 6 X 9” SPEAKERS AND 100 WATTS -REF.1.1982 113.81(P) = 1 MILLIMETER WATER

114-107 A VERY LARGE, POWERFUL PORTABLE RADIO REF.1.1982 116 HUMAN BODY BEGINS TO PERCEIVE VIBRATION IN THE LOW FREQUENCIES -REF.1.1986

117-123 HOME STEREO SYSTEM, A VERY LOUD AND POWERFUL 200-2000 WATTS -REF.1.1983

120.24(P) ONE PURE SOUND WATT FLOWING THROUGH 1 SQUARE METER, YOUR ELECTRIC AMPLIFIER MAY BE 3000 WATTS.ALSO A TESTIMONY TO HEARING SENSITIVITY -REF.1.1986

120-130 FRONT ROW AT A ROCK CONCERT- UP TO

200 REFRIGERATOR SIZE SPEAKERS AND 50000-300000 WATTS OF CLEAN, FULL FREQUENCY SOUND -REF.1.1981

125 DRUM SET-ONLY AT THE MOMENT OF STRIKING, CONTINUOUS LEVEL

115 126-130 TYPICAL PROFESSIONAL D.J. SYSTEM -REF.1.1984

127 HUMAN TINNITUS (RINGING IN THE EARS) BEGINS -REF.1.1984 127.48 = 1 pound per square foot

128 (P)HUMAN, LOUDEST SCREAM MEASURED AT A DISTANCE OF 8 FEET 2 INCHES 128 HUMAN HEAD HAIR BEGINS TO DETECT VIBRATION -REF.1.1983

128 HUMAN CAN BEGIN TO DETECT VERY SLOW “BLAST WIND” OF 0.124 METERS/SECOND -REF.1.1983

130 (N)MARCHING BAND-OVERALL LEVEL AT A DISTANCE, 100-200 MEMBERS -REF.1.1996

132 EARDRUM “FLEX” TOTALLY NOTICEABLE -REF.1.1982 132.4(P) = 1 SOUND WATT MAXIMUM IN A SMALL SEALED BOX BELOW HYDRODYNAMIC CRITICAL LOW FREQUENCY

133 (N)GUNSHOT- EAR LEVEL, MAY VARY GREATLY TO SIZE AND TYPE OF GUN, DURATION CONVERTED TO ONE SECOND, PEAK LEVEL MAY REACH

140-160 (P) 133.98 (P) = 1 MILLIBAR PRESSURE 135-122 (P) “VERY LOUD” CAR STEREO, ONLY BASS LEVEL, HIGHS RARELY ABOVE 115(P) -REF.1.1983

135-130(N) LARGE TRAIN HORN -REF.1.1985

135 HUMAN, A SLIGHT COOLING EFFECT BEGINS TO BE NOTICED, FROM AIR EXPANSION -REF.1.1983

136.498(P) = 1 TORR PRESSURE = 1 MILLIMETER MERCURY 137 HUMAN BODY VIBRATION IS STRONG -REF.1.1983

137-140 HUMAN EAR ALL FREQUENCIES ARE PAINFUL -REF.1.1983

140 EXTREMELY DAMAGING TO HEARING NO MATTER HOW SHORT THE TIME EXPOSURE 140 BLAST WIND = U = (PARTICLE VELOCITY) IS 0.49 METERS PER SECOND OR ABOUT 1 MPH

140 HUMAN THROAT AND VOCAL CORD VIBRATION BEGINS -REF.1.1983

141 HUMAN BODY BEGINS TO FEEL NAUSEA AFTER A FEW MINUTES -REF.1.1983

141.918(P) = 1 INCH OF WATER PRESSURE

142 HUMAN BODY CHEST POUNDING IS INTENSE -REF.1.1983

142 (P) INSIDE A CAR WITH TWO PRO 18 INCH WOOFERS AND 300 WATTS EACH -REF.1.1983

143 HUMAN BODY FEELS AS IF SOMEONE JUST FOOTBALL TACKLED YOUR CHEST -REF.1.1983

144 HUMAN NOSE ITCHES -REF.1.1983

145 HUMAN VISION BEGINS TO VIBRATE MAKING IT SLIGHTLY BLURRY, 1-3 DEGREES -REF.1.1983

145-136 (P)“COMPETITION” CAR STEREO, SIXTEEN 12 OR EIGHT 15, OR FOUR 18 SPEAKERS -REF.1.1983

146.1(P) AIR PARTICLE VELOCITY(WIND) IS 1 METER PER SECOND OR ABOUT 2 MILES PER HOUR

147 (N)FORMULA 1 RACE CAR, 700 HORSEPOWER, CHEST POUNDING AND SUCTION FORCE ON CALM QUIET MORNINGS CAN CLEARLY BE HEARD 6 MILES AWAY.-REF.1.1991

148 HUMAN VIBRATION VERY UNCOMFORTABLE AND SLIGHTLY PAINFUL -REF.1.1986

149 HUMAN LUNGS AND BREATHING BEGINS VIBRATING TO THE SOUND -REF.1.1986

150 (N)ROCK CONCERT “THE WHO” TWO 10 STORY STACKS = 144 DOUBLE REFRIGERATOR SIZED SPEAKERS, ACTUAL LEVEL REACHED 120 DB AT A DISTANCE OF 32 METERS FOR THIS NORMALIZED READING OF

150 DB.CONTINUOUS LEVEL 114-118db (P) AT 32 METERS -REF.1.1982

150 ROCK CONCERT SPEAKER AT 1600 WATTS ON THE ACTUAL VIBRATING SURFACE -REF.1.1991 150 HUMAN SENSATION OF BEING COMPRESSED AS IF UNDERWATER IS OVERWHELMING -REF.1.1983

150 HUMAN SOUND EXPERIMENTS DOWN TO 1 TO 2 HERTZ – REF.13.

152 HUMAN VIBRATION IS PAINFUL AND ALSO FELT IN ALL JOINTS -REF.1.1983 153 HUMAN THROAT IS VIBRATING SO HARD IT IS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO SWALLOW -REF.1.1983

154 TOY BALLOON POPPING, DEPENDS ON TYPE AND HOW LARGE AND HARD TO INFLATE -REF.1.1986

155 HUMAN BODY COMPRESSION AND EXPANSION TO VIBRATION IS TO THE “CORE” -REF.1.1983

155 HUMAN COOLING EFFECT IS HIGH, AS A GUESS 10 TO 25 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT? -REF.1.1983

156 (P)IN A MINI-VAN WITH TWENTY 12” WOOFERS AND 19,000 WATTS OF AMPLIFIER POWER. EACH SPEAKERS IS DISPLACING (PUMPING BACK AND FORTH ) 0.75 INCHES IF LONG HAIR WOMEN SIT IN IT, HER HAIR WILL FLY OUT OF WINDOW WITH BASS WINDSHIELD WIPERS FLY OFF VEHICLE 1/2 TO 2 INCHES, DOOR AND FRONT WINDSHIELD FLEXION MAY BE UP TO +-2 INCHES OR 4 INCHES PEAK TO PEAK EVEN WITH EARPLUGS (-30 DB) AND HEAD MUFFS (-24 DB) = -54 DB IT’S STILL LOUD -REF.1.1997 156.498(P) = 1 CENTIMETER MERCURY = 0.01 METERS MERCURY

158 HUMAN BODY VIBRATION IS VIOLENT, NAUSEA BECOMES MORE INTENSE -REF.1.1983

158 (P)INSIDE A ROCK CONCERT SPEAKER BOX REFRIGERATOR SIZE AT MAX. 5000 WATTS -REF.1.1983

160 (P)FLASHLIGHTS EXHIBIT ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSING-EMP (DIMMING DURING SOUND) -REF.1.1983

162 U.S. FESTIVAL ROCK CONCERT 1983. 10 SEPARATE STACKS, AMPS = 400,000 WATTS (N) -REF.1.1983,-REF.3.

163-153 (N) N.H.R.A. DRAGSTERS- 5000 TO 7000 HORSEPOWER, LIQUID NITROGLYCERIN FUEL, EARTHSHAKING AT 50 FEET, HUMANS FIND IT HARD TO SEE, AND BREATHE 140db(P) -REF.1.1987

163 (P)GLASS BREAKING LEVEL, MINIMUM, IT IS VERY HARD TO BREAK GLASS WINDOWS. MANY STORIES COME FROM BREAKING GLASS BUT IT IS HIGHLY VARIABLE: IT IS EASIER TO BREAK IF THE WINDOW ALREADY HAS A CRACK, IS VERY LARGE OR OLD AND BRITTLE AND NOT CAR SAFETY GLASS WHICH CAN FLEX MASSIVELY BEFORE BREAKING. AN OPERA SINGER AT 110 DB MAY BREAK A WINEGLASS BUT IT IS AN EXAMPLE OF FREQUENCY RESONANCE, AND NOT HIGH SOUND DB LEVEL -REF.1.1987

163 (N)OCEAN WHALE REFERENCE 2 EXP-5 NEWTONS PER SQUARE METER 164 (P)INTERNAL SOUND PRESSURE OF A LARGE JET AIRPLANE TURBINE MOTOR -REF.1.1993

164.568(P) = 1 INCH MERCURY PRESSURE

165-145 (NP) THE COMMON TYPE OF FIREWORKS AT PROFESSIONAL PYROTECHNIC SHOWS -REF.1.1988 

165 (N)JET AIRPLANE, BOEING 727-15,000 LBS OF THRUST, DEPENDS ON THE TAKEOFF -REF.1.1982

165(P) MOTOR DRIVEN PISTON HEADPHONES -REF.16. 166 AIR PARTICLE VELOCITY IS 10 METERS PER SECOND OR ABOUT 20 MILES PER HOUR

170.75 PRESSURE (P) = 1 P.S.I. = 1 POUND PER SQUARE INCH MOST SOUND READINGS HIGHER THAN THIS REFER TO P.S.I. INSTEAD OF DB. BUILDINGS AND HOUSES HAVE APPROXIMATELY A 50 % CHANCE OF SURVIVAL REF.2.

171-150 (P)WORLDS LOUDEST CAR STEREOS, UP TO 80 SPEAKERS,32 CAR BATTERYS, 100,000 WATTS,

125-138 (N) 171(P) acoustic air pressure generator -ref.12

172 (N) 727, 737, 747, 757, 767 CRUISING AT 6 MILES HIGH MACH 0.84, AT THE GROUND (SEA LEVEL) LOSES AN ADDITIONAL 6 DB BECAUSE AIR DENSITY IS ONLY HALF SEA LEVEL AT A HEIGHT OF 6 MILES

172 FOG IS CREATED, DEPENDING ON THE TEMPERATURE, DEW POINT AND HUMIDITY

173-164 (P)BASS INJECTION TESTS, EXPERIMENTAL ELECTROMAGNETIC TYPE SPEAKERS -REF.1.1987

173(P) = hydraulic, whole body dynamic pressure chamber, at 8 hertz -ref.11. 174 AIR BEGINS TO HEAT UP DUE TO COMPRESSION, MOST SHOCK WAVES ARE VERY HOT

174(P) LOUDSPEAKER COUPLED MANOMETER HEADPHONES DOWN TO 1 HERTZ -REF.15.

175 (N) QUARTER DYNAMITE STICK, VERY CLOSE PRESSURE MAY EXCEED 210 db (P)

175.8(P) 1 TON T.N.T. AT 250 FEET 177 (P) = 2 P.S.I., DAMAGE TO STRUCTURES ARE SIGNIFICANT, 30% SURVIVAL -REF.2. 180 (P) 1 POUND T.N.T. AT 15 FEET -REF.4.

180 (P) = 3 P.S.I., DAMAGE TO STRUCTURES IS CATASTROPHIC, WHEN A SHOCK -REF.2. WAVE HITS A STRUCTURE ITS MOMENTUM AND PRESSURE MORE THAN DOUBLES, ESPECIALLY AT HIGHER DB LEVELS, DYNAMIC WIND IS ABOUT 103 MILE / HOUR AND CAUSES A LARGE PORTION OF DAMAGE, 15 % OBJECT SURVIVAL -REF.2.

180 (P) = MOTOR DRIVE COUPLED MANOMETER STATIC PRESSURE,

165 DB(P) UP TO 50 HERTZ, -REF.14. 182 (P) 1 TON T.N.T AT 150 FEET, EXACTLY 182.2 DB -REF.4.

183 (P) = 6 P.S.I. TOTAL DESTRUCTION OF ALL STRUCTURES, PARTICLE VELOCITY (BLAST WIND) IS 180 MILES PER HOUR. 0.9 MILES FROM HIROSHIMA ATOMIC BOMB AND 3.3 MILES FROM 1MEGATON NUCLEAR BOMB, LESS 0.1 % OBJECT SURVIVAL -REF.2. 185.75 (NP) 0.375 POUNDS OF T.N.T. RIECHTER -1.5

186.1(P) 1 POUND T.N.T AT DISTANCE OF 10 FEET -REF.4.

187 (P) 1 TON T.N.T. AT 100 FEET, EXACTLY

186.8 DB -REF.4. 190.60 (NP) RIECHTER SCALE 0 (ZERO) EARTHQUAKE

190.60 (NP) 2.0000 POUNDS T.N.T. 191 (N)BOMB-VERY SMALL 1 LB. OR GRENADE, VERY CLOSE PRESSURE MAY EXCEED 210 db (P) 193.806(P) = 1 KILOGRAM PER SQUARE CENTIMETER 193.979(P) = 1 BAR PRESSURE = 14.504 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH = 14.504 P.S.I. 194.09(P) = 1 (ONE) AIR ATMOSPHERE = 14.6962 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH = 14.6962 P.S.I.= 1 ATM SOUND WAVES DISTORT AND ARE NOW DEFINED AS SHOCK WAVES AND THEY BEGIN TO FOLLOW SHOCK WAVE BEHAVIOR. PARTICLE VELOCITY (BLAST WIND) = 590 FEET / SECOND = 180 METERS PER SECOND = 402 MILES PER HOUR. -REF.2.

194.1(P)EXACTLY, 1 POUND T.N.T. AT 6 FEET -REF.4. 195-190 (P) HUMAN EARDRUMS RUPTURE 50 % OF TIME -REF.2. 195.2(P) 1 TON T.N.T. AT 60 FEET -REF.4. 200.59 (NP) 63.24 POUNDS OF T.N.T., RIECHTER SCALE 1

202-198 (P) HUMAN DEATH FROM SOUND (SHOCK) WAVE ALONE. DEATH FROM: SHRAPNEL AT ANY LEVEL ABOVE 165 DB IS LIKELY AND BEING THROWN (10 FEET PER SECOND) ABOVE 180 DB -REF.2.

205.29(NP) 320 POUNDS OF T.N.T. RIECHTER 1.5

207 (N)BOMB, SMALL SIZED 250 POUNDS, 14 FOOT WIDE CRATER, NEARBY MAY EXCEED

238 db (P) -REF.2. 207.46 (P) = 68.48 P.S.I.= (Q), CRITICAL PRESSURE, THE SHOCK WAVE PRESSURE(P) AND DYNAMIC (BLAST WIND) PRESSURE(Q) ARE EQUAL, LOUDER THAN THIS DYNAMIC PRESSURE(Q) WILL ALWAYS BE MORE THAN SHOCK PRESSURE(P). BLAST WIND (PARTICLE VELOCITY = U) IS 1697 FEET PER SECOND = 518 METERS SECOND = 1157 MILES PER HOUR. 400 FEET FROM A 1000 TON T.N.T EXPLOSION -REF.2.

209 (N)BOMB, MEDIUM 500 POUNDS, 18 FOOT WIDE CRATER NEARBY MAY EXCEED 240 db (P) -REF.2.4. 210 N.A.S.A. 400,000 ACOUSTIC WATTS EXPERIMENTAL NOISEMAKER 48 FEET ACROSS OF CONCRETE AND STEEL

210.6 (NP) EARTHQUAKE REICHTER SCALE 2.0

210.6 (NP) 1 TON OF T.N.T. and a 23.40 foot crater

212 (N) SONIC BOOM AVERAGE FROM JET -REF.5.

213 (N) SONIC BOOM GENERATES APPROXIMATELY 1.2 GIGAWATTS OR 1.6 MILLION HORSEPOWER -REF.1.2002

213 (N) BOMB 1 TON TNT, 23 FOOT WIDE CRATER OR 175.8 db (P) AT 250 FEET. 213.44 EXACT -REF.1.2.4.

214.09(P) = 10 atmospheres, DB(Q) BLAST WIND = 217.439 DB(Q) 215 SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCH EXHAUST, APPROXIMATELY 3 MILES PER SECOND 215 (N)THUNDER, THE LARGEST POSITIVE GIANTS. ORDINARY THUNDER 165-180 DB.LIGHTNING STRIKE ON OCEAN SURFACE

234db (P) AT 2exp-5 NEWTONS PER SQUARE METER

215 (N) BATTLESHIP NEW JERSEY FIRING ALL 9 SIXTEEN INCH GUNS

216 (P) INSIDE A NORMAL CAR ENGINE CYLINDER WITH A 9 TO 1 COMPRESSION RATIO 216.0 (NP)+-0.3 DB 6.5 TONS OF T.N.T. EXACT EXTREMELY ACCURATE HIGH TECH MEASUREMENTS -REF. 8

217.439(Q) = DYNAMIC PRESSURE BLAST WIND FROM A 10 ATMOSPHERE OVERPRESSURE

218.2(NP)sonic boom F-16. at 100 feet high = 3.92 lbs.per square foot = 139.6db, +78.6db = 8536.5 meters high -REF.1.10. 2002 220 ?(N)BOMB, LARGEST USED IN WWII, WEIGHING 11 TONS AND 25 FEET LONG -REF.1.3. 2001

220 (N)SATURN 5 ROCKET SHIP, MELTS CONCRETE AND BURNS GRASS ONE MILE AWAY REACHED A VELOCITY OF 5 MILES PER SECOND AND MOON ON JULY 20, 1969

220 ?(N)SPACE SHUTTLE LANDING SONIC BOOM WITH VELOCITY OF MACH 20 -REF.1. 1998

225 (P) INSIDE A NORMAL DIESEL MOTOR SEMI-TRUCK CYLINDER 25 TO 1 COMPRESSION

226.59 (NP) TRAIN EXPLOSION 2004 FEB 19 09:37AM NEYSHABUR, IRAN, runaway train, possible terrorism, shattered windows at 15 km.,crater is 500 feet diameter and 50 feet deep, magnitude 3.6 riechter, at several miles “the entire area shook”, heard at 75 km, equal to 251.195 tons of t.n.t., 51 car train = 17 cars sulpher, 6 cars gasoline, 7 cars ammonium nitrate fertilizer (a.n.f.o.), 10 cars cotton wool, 3 left at station not involved, 8 miscellaneous loads

228.1 (P)EXACTLY. 1 POUND OF T.N.T. AT A DISTANCE OF 1 FOOT -REF.4.

229 (N) SEAFLOOR VOLCANIC ERUPTION, REFERENCE 2 EXP-5 NEWTONS PER SQUARE METER

230.59 (NP) EARTHQUAKE RIECHTER 4.0

230.59 (NP) 1000 TONS OF T.N.T.

232 (N)LARGE NON-NUCLEAR EXPLOSION, 500 TONS, 1917 DESTRUCTION OF GERMAN WWI TUNNELS IN MESSINES RIDGE BELGIUM, HEARD OR FELT IN LONDON (N) -REF.1.,-REF.3.

234.09(P) = 100 ATMOSPHERES, BLAST WIND = 241.46 DB(Q)

235 (P) 1 TON T.N.T. AT 10 FEET, EXACTLY 235.3 DB -REF.4. ? (N)TORNADO AVERAGE, 5100 TONS OF T.N.T. -REF.1. 2004

235.19 (NP) EARTHQUAKE RIECHTER 5.0 235.19 (NP) 31624 TONS OF T.N.T.

240 (N)ONE KILOTON OF T.N.T EXPLOSIVE, 233 FOOT WIDE CRATER 29 FEET DEEP,10 P.S.I. AT 1000 FEET (P),

230 DB AT 10000 FT(N) -REF.2.

240?(N)TORNADO, FUJITSU 5, ENERGY GUESS BASED ON 300 MILE PER HOUR WIND, 1 MILE WIDE -REF.1.1997

241.46 (Q) = blast wind pressure from a 100 atm overpressure

243 (N)LARGEST NON-NUCLEAR EXPLOSION EVER, 1947 DESTRUCTION OF NAZI U-BOAT PENS USED 7100 TONS OF EXPLOSIVE -REF.1. -REF.3.

247 (P) BOMB INSIDE SHOCK WAVE MAXIMUM LIMIT PRESSURE OF T.N.T. EXPLOSIVE -REF.2.4

248 (N)ATOMIC BOMB-HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI JAPAN AUG. 6, 9, 1945.TRAGICALLY KILLED 300,000 PEOPLE. TOTALLY DISINTEGRATED 16 SQUARE MILES, CRACKED DISTANT CONCRETE WALLS 12” THICK, EQUAL TO 20,000 TONS OF T.N.T., WIND WAS AROUND 300 MILES PER HOUR, DESTROYED WALLS 28” THICK AT 1 MILE.POWER TO MAKE A CRATER 633 FEET WIDE AND 80 FEET DEEP -REF.1.2.

254.09 (P) = 1000 atmospheres overpressure, dynamic pressure = 261.721 db(Q)

255 (N) 600 KILOTONS GROUND BURST CRATER IS 2112 FEET WIDE AND 211 FEET DEEP -REF.2.

257 (N)NUCLEAR BOMB, 1 MEGATON (1 MILLION TONS OF T.N.T.) -REF.2. ? (N)NUCLEAR BOMB “OAK” 8.9 MEGATON, ENEWETAK,JUNE 29 1958,5740 FEET WIDE 204 DEEP CRATER

261.721 (Q) = dynamic blast wind pressure generated from a 1000 atmosphere overpressure 274.09 (P) = 10000 atmospheres overpressure, dynamic pressure = 282.042 db(Q)

278 (N)NUCLEAR BOMB, “BRAVO” TEST 15 MEGATONS, 1954, BIKINI ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS -REF.2. ? (N)METEOR HITTING EARTH, “ARIZONA CRATER” SPEED WAS 44 MILES PER SECOND AND ABOUT THE SIZE OF A HOUSE AND MADE A CRATER ONE MILE IN DIAMETER 20 MT T.N.T. ? (N)NUCLEAR BOMB, 20 MEGATONS, SURFACE BURST CRATER IS 7392 FEET WIDE AND 792 FEET DEEP 282 (N)NUCLEAR BOMB, 57 MEGATONS HYDROGEN LARGEST EVER DETONATED, 1961 SHOCK WAVES CIRCLED THE EARTH 3 TIMES, FIRST ORBIT TOOK 36 HR 27 MIN. -REF.2.



Categories: Dolphins, Fisheries, Marine Mammal Rescue, nature, Northern Elephant Seal, Seismic Testing, Sustainable Seafood, Whales

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